For more than a century, biotechnology has acted as a vital buffer between people, pollution and the environment. The field is designed to moderate, if not eliminate, the stresses we inflict upon the world's ecosystems. In order to do this effectively, a systems approach must be employed to maximize the sustainability of our efforts and improve the long term health our environment. This book will address the questions of how and why knowledge and understanding of the physical, chemical, and biological principles of the environment must be achieved for the effective development of biotechnology applications. Using a systems biology approach, Environmental Biotechnology will provide a context for researchers and practitioners in environmental science. It will serve as a complement to the useful guidebooks which provide the necessary specifications and criteria for a wide range of environmental designs and applications by providing the underlying principles for the specifications, an area which is most important to scientific researchers in this arena to develop further technologies. * Provides a systems approach to biotechnologies which includes the physical, biological, and chemical processes in context * Case studies include cutting-edge technologies such as nanobiotechnologies and green engineering * Addresses both the applications and implications of biotechnologies by following the life-cycle of a variety of established and developing biotechnologies.
Biochemodynamics: A Systems Approach to Environmental Biotechnology -- Daniel A. Vallero, Ph. D. -- Foreword -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- Chapter 1: Environmental Biotechnology: An Overview -- Biochemodynamics -- Assessing the Biotechnological Impacts -- Biotechnology and Bioengineering -- �Discussion Box: Little Things Matter in a Chaotic World -- The Environmental Biotechnology Discipline -- ��Biotechnology and Society -- Risk and Reliability: Some Forethought -- Beyond Biotechnological Applications -- �Terminology -- Eureka! -- Oh No! -- The Science of Environmental Biotechnology -- Boxes and Envelopes -- Review Questions -- Notes and Commentary -- Chapter 2: A Question of Balance: Using versus Abusing Biological Systems -- �Environmental Biomimicry -- �Engineered Systems Inspired by Biology -- Environmental Biochemodynamics -- �Biophile Cycling -- Sequestration -- ��Carbon Sequestration in Soil -- ��Active Sequestration -- Nitrogen and Sulfur Biochemodynamics -- Review Questions -- Notes and Resources -- Chapter 3: Environmental Biochemodynamic Processes -- Cellular Thermodynamics -- ��Importance of Free Energy in Microbial Metabolism -- Dissolution -- ��Phase Partitioning -- �Thermodynamics in Abiotic and Biotic Systems -- ��Volatility/Solubility/Density Relationships -- ��Environmental Balances -- ��Fugacity -- �Sorption -- �Volatilization -- �Bioavailability -- ��Persistent Bioaccumulating Toxic Substances -- ��Discussion Box: The Inuit and Persistent Organic Pollutants -- ���Extrinsic Factors -- �Biochemodynamic Persistence and Half-Life -- �Fugacity, Z Values, and Henry's Law -- �Advection -- �Dispersion -- ��Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Dispersion -- �Diffusion -- �Overall Effect of the Fluxes, Sinks and Sources -- �Biochemodynamic Transport Models -- �Level 1 Model -- Level 2 Model -- Level 3 Model -- Review Questions -- Notes and Commentary -- Chapter 4: Systems -- �Biotechnological Systems -- �Putting Biology to Work -- �Scale -- �Systems Synergies: Biotechnological Analysis -- �Using Bioindicators -- �Biosensors -- �Relationship between Green Engineering and Biotechnology -- �Review Questions -- �Notes -- Chapter 5: Environmental Risks of Biotechnologies -- Estimating Biotechnological Risks -- Dose-Response -- Exposure Estimation -- ��Discussion Box: Exposure Calculation -- �Direct Bioengineering Risk Calculations -- Discussion Box: Cancer Risk Calculation -- Discussion Box: Non-cancer Risk Calculation -- Risk-based cleanup standards -- Discussion Box: Treatment by Genetic Modification -- ��Discussion Box: Risk-Based Contaminant Cleanup -- ��Discussion Box: Biotechnical Communications -- Review Questions -- Notes and Commentary -- Chapter 6: Reducing Biotechnological Risks -- ��Case Study Box: Genetic Biocontrols of Invaders -- �Discussion Box: Discussion Box: Biochemodynamics of Pharmaceuticals -- �Risk Causes -- ��Biographical Box: Sir Bradford Hill -- �Case Study Box: Managing Risks by Distinguishing between Progenitor and Genetically Modified Microbes -- �Failure: Human Factors Engineering -- ��Utility as a Measure of Success -- ��Failure Type 1: Mistakes and Miscalculations -- Failure Type 2: Extraordinary Natural Circumstances -- Failure Type 3: Critical Path -- Failure Type 4: Negligence -- Failure Type 5: Lack of Imagination -- Bioterrorism: Bad Biotechnology -- Review Questions -- Notes and Commentary -- Chapter 7: Applied Microbial Ecology: Bioremediation -- Systematic View of Oxygen -- Biodegradation and Bioremediation -- Biochemodynamics of Biodegradation -- ��Off-site Treatment -- Digestion -- Discussion Box: Biochemodynamic Films -- Aerobic Biodegradation -- ��Trickling Filter -- Activated Sludge -- Aeration Ponds -- Anaerobic Biodegradation -- Multimedia-Multiphase Bioremediation -- Phytoremediation -- Biomarkers -- Bioengineering Considerations for Genetically Modified Organisms -- �Discussion Box: Measuring Biodegradation Success -- ���Nitric Oxide as an Indicator of Degradation -- ���Humility in Biotechnological Modeling -- �Developing an Indirect, Chemical Model of Microbial Activity -- Model Comparison to Laboratory Study for Toluene Degradation -- Review Questions -- Notes and Commentary -- Chapter 8: Biotechnological Implications: A Systems Approach -- �Systematic View of Biotechnological Risks -- �Applied Thermodynamics -- �Predicting Environmental Implications -- �Environmental Implications of Engineering Organisms -- �Genetic Engineering Basics -- ��Conventional Breeding Approaches -- ��Modification of Organisms without Introducing Foreign DNA -- Modification of Organisms by Introducing Foreign DNA -- Transfected DNA -- Vector-borne DNA -- Environmental Aspects of Cisgenic and Transgenic Organisms -- Foreign DNA in Plants -- Biochemodynamic Flow of Modified Genetic Material -- Review Questions -- Notes and Commentary -- Chapter 9: Environmental Risks of Biotechnologies: Economic Sector Perspectives -- �Industrial Biotechnology -- ��Production of Enzymes -- ��The Organism -- ��Health and Safety Regulations -- ��Environmental Implications -- �Medical Biotechnology -- ��Discussion Box: Patenting Life -- ��Bio-Uptake and Bioaccumulation -- ��Discussion Box: Hormonally Active Agents -- ���Determining Estrogenicity -- ���Environmental Fate of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds -- ���Treatment of EDCs in Drinking Water -- UV applications -- ���Modeling the UV/H2O2 Process -- ��Environmental Implications -- ��Animal Biotechnology -- �Agricultural Biotechnology -- Discussion Box: "King Corn or Frankencorn" -- ���Genetic Modification -- ��Gene Flow -- Review Questions -- Notes and Commentary -- Chapter 10: Addressing Biotechnological Pollutants -- �Cleaning Up Biotechnological Operations -- Intervention at the Source of Contamination -- Intervention at the Point of Release -- Intervention during Transport -- Intervention to Control the Exposure -- Intervention at the Point of Response -- Thermal Treatment of Biotechnological Wastes -- Calculating Destruction Removal -- Other Thermal Strategies -- Nitrogen and Sulfur Problems -- Review Questions -- Notes and Commentary -- Chapter 11: Analyzing the Environmental Implications of Biotechnologies -- ���Discussion Box: Biological Agent: Stachybotrys -- Life Cycle as an Analytical Methodology -- �Revisiting Failure and Blame -- �Environmental Accountability -- �Life Cycle Applications -- Utility and the Benefit/Cost Analysis -- Predicting Environmental Damage -- ��Analysis of Biotechnological Implications -- ��Checklist for Ethical Decision Making -- Review Questions -- Notes and Commentary -- Chapter 12: Managing Biotechnologies -- �Bioengineering Perspectives -- �Systematic Biotechnology and the Status Quo -- �A Few Words about Environmental Ethics -- �Biotechnology Decision Tools -- ��Accountability -- ��Value -- ��Informing Decisions -- �Green Engineering and Biotechnology -- �Green Engineering and Biotechnology -- ��Discussion Box: Probability and Biotechnology -- �Risk Homeostasis and the Theory of Offsetting Behavior -- �Artifacts -- �Review Questions -- �Notes and Commentary -- Glossary -- Appendix 1 -- Appendix 2 -- Index.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Description based on print version record.